03 July 2012

What is PBS? (English Version)

What is PBS?
 
PBS is a holistic form of assessment which assesses the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains encompassing intellectual, emotional, spiritual and physical aspects. Thus PBS is in tandem with the Primary School Standard Curriculum as well as the National Education Philosophy.

PBS covers both academic and non-academic fields. PBS is carried out continuously in schools by teachers during the teaching and learning process.
 
There are 4 components in the PBS:
(i) Central Assessment
(ii) School Assessment
(iii) Assessment of Sports and Co-curricular activities
(iv) Psychometric Assessment

Is the PBS concept new?
 
No, the PBS concept is not new. Homework, quizzes, question and answer sessions are all examples of PBS activities. However, there are two new features in the improved PBS. 

Firstly the concept of Standard Referenced Assessment in which learner’s achievements are measured against a Performance Standard which determines what learner’s are expected to achieve. Secondly is the introduction of SPPBS or PBS Management System which will make it easier for teachers to record and store data concerning learners’ achievement.

Why is PBS being introduced now?
 
PBS is being introduced as part of the National Transformation Program to produce worldclass human capital.

When will PBS be implemented?
 
PBS began in Year One 2011 and will result in the refurbished UPSR in 2016. PBS will be carried out in Form One from 2012 and PMR beginning 2014 will be entirely school-based.

What is the difference between PBS and the present assessment?
 
PBS is more holistic and emphasizes all aspects including physical, emotional, spiritual and intellectual. The present assessment focuses on learners’ achievement through examination results. PBS assesses both the learning outcome as well as the learning process. Therefore both formative and summative assessment which encompass assessment for learning and assessment of learning are employed. Presently the focus is mainly on assessment of learning at the end of the learning process which is largely summative in nature.

In an effort to make the present assessment better, Standard Referenced Assessment is introduced to track the growth and development of each pupil through his/her performance. In the process it is possible to find out what each pupil know (tahu), understand (faham) and can apply (boleh buat) or have mastered what has been learnt based on the Performance
Standards which is mapped from the Standard Curriculum.

Furthermore, Standard Referenced Assessment does not compare a pupil’s achievement with his/her peers instead it reports each pupil’s growth and development by comparing his/her performance against a statement of standards.

PBS gives autonomy and due recognition to teachers to carry out formative and summative school-based assessment at their discretion. In this manner teachers’ integrity and credibility will be enhanced. Teachers are most suitable to assess their pupils because they :
- Can continuously monitor their pupils’ growth
- Can provide constructive feedback to help improve pupils’ learning abilities
- Better understand the context and environment most conducive to assess pupils
- Appraise and provide feedback based on the Performance Standards

What is Performance Standard?
 
Performance Standard is a set of statements detailing the achievement and mastery of an individual within a certain discipline, in a specific period of study based on an identified benchmark. The Performance Standard will help inform the appraiser on the best and most suitable way to assess individuals fairly in a focused manner based on the predetermined set of standards.

What is the quality assurance of PBS?
 
Quality assurance of the PBS is determined through:
- Mentoring
- Standardization
- Monitoring
- Detection
 
Mentoring is the process of assisting, facilitating and guiding teachers to carry out PBS according to the correct procedures and principles of PBS.
 
Monitoring ensures that the correct procedures have been adhered to ensure the reliability and credibility of the assessment outcome. 

Standardization ensures uniformity of scores with reference to the Performance Standards based on the rubrics of an assignment.
 
Detection is the process that evaluates the strength, weaknesses and effectiveness of assessment tool used to carry out PBS.

How will parents obtain feedback on their child’s performance?
 
A descriptive and formative report can be generated using the SPPBS whenever needed. The system also acts as a life-time data base and stores all information pertaining to pupils’ progress from Year 1 to Form 5.

What value is the assessment result to pupils?
 
Feedback based on the Performance Standards can help students identify his/her strength and weaknesses, common errors made and areas that need more attention as well as steps to take in order to improve.Constructive and meaningful feedback can help pupils focus on their learning progress. Hence pupils will be more motivated to work harder and perform better in the future.

What is the impact of PBS on UPSR and PMR?
 
UPSR and PMR are still important modes of assessment, however they will no longer be deemed as high stake events since PBS is a continuous process and also more holistic.

How reliable are assessment results conducted by teachers?
 
Assessment scores produced by teachers are reliable because they:
- Can continuously monitor their pupils’ growth
- Can provide constructive feedback to help improve pupils’ learning abilities
- Better understand the context and environment most conducive to assess pupils
- Appraise and provide feedback based on the Performance Standards
 
Are teachers ready for PBS? 

All teachers are qualified and trained in teacher education. In addition they are given refresher courses to help them manage the PBS.

PBS Committee
 
What is the role of the President of School Principals and President of Headmasters Council in the district PBS Committee? 

They represent all Principals and Headmasters in the district. Their role is to highlight issues and queries concerning PBS on behalf of their colleagues during the PBS District Committee meeting.

What authorization does the PBS Committee have in the implementation of the PBS? 

The PBS Committee has the authority to decide on the implementation of PBS in their schools as long as their decisions do not contravene set guidelines and directives from the ministry.
 
Who makes up the PBS Committee for Under Enrolled Schools?
 
The appointment of PBS Committee members depends on the needs of each school. For Under Enrolled Schools it may be necessary for a teacher to hold more than one portfolio in the committee.

Implementation
 
Does LINUS complement PBS?
 
Yes. The skills screened in LINUS are those found in KSSR (Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah). The Performance Standards referred to in PBS are mapped based on the KSSR.
 
Are monthly and annual exams still relevant?
 
The School PBS Committee has the authority do away or continue having monthly and year-end examinations. However should they decide to continue with the monthly and year end exams than the test or tasks must be based on the descriptors in the Performance Standards.

Can schools carry out PBS based on available resources using selected
approaches?
 

Yes. The School PBS Committee may improvise using available resources and adopt suitable approaches as long the changes do not contravene set guidelines and directives from the ministry.

Should pupils who have recently returned from abroad be assessed PBS cohort for the previous year?
 
No, PBS evaluation only applies to the current year for all pupils.
 
Can a pupil be exempted from PBS?
 
No. All pupils are appraised based on their ability and readiness. Appraisal can be carried out when the pupils are ready to be assessed.
 
Does the PBS apply to pupils with special needs? Will they be exempted?
 
Pupils with special needs will be assed based on a Performance Standard especially customized for them. There will be no exemption.

School Assessors
 
Can a GSTT become an assessor?
 
Yes. The appraisal is carried out during the teaching and learning process by the teacher teaching the subject and the class.
 
Can a teacher who does not teach a particular subject take on the role of assessor for that subject? 

No because appraisal must be carried out during the teaching and learning process by the teacher teaching the subject and the class.

Reporting
 
Can parents request for a report on their child’s progress?
 
Parents may request for a report on their child’s progress any time provided the particular topic and relevant skills connected to the topic has been assessed.
 
Who will prepare the performance reports?
 
Subject teachers will prepare performance reports upon request. The reports are generated by the SPPBS.
 
When do teachers begin to enter standard performance data?
 
The Examinations Syndicate will issue a directive advising schools when to start entering data.
 
Can pupils’ obtain a record of their performance on request?
 
Yes.

Can interested parties such as politicians (wakil rakyat), NGOs, private sector representatives and others besides parents obtain a copy of pupils’ performance reports in order to provide contribution and to motivate pupils?

They may do so with the consent of the School PBS Committee.
 
Can schools rank pupils with the implementation of the PBS? How can this be done? 

The school can do so by referring to the evidence of pupils’ work.
 
Can Excellent Award recipients be selected by referring to the performance reports? 

Yes. The PBS report should be referred to as a criteria for selecting award recipients because it is corroborated by hard evidence.
 
Can parents access the SPPBS?
 
No. Parents need to obtain the reports from the teachers in the school.

Quality Assurance
 
What does standardization mean?
 
Standardization ensures the uniformity of understanding among all assessors of the rules/marking schemes/rubrics. The process is necessary to make sure the construct, grade/scoring scale are of the same standard thus ensuring the credibility and reliability of scores awarded.
 
Who is responsible for standardization?
 
Internal standardization is coordinated by the Ketua Panitia, Ketua Bidang, Guru Cemerlang Mata Pelajaran. External standardization is coordinated by officers appointed by the Examinations Syndicate.

What is mentoring?
 
It is the process of assisting, facilitating and guiding teachers to conduct PBS according to set guidelines and procedures.
 
Who conducts mentoring?
 
Ketua Panitia, Ketua Bidang, Guru Cemerlang Mata Pelajaran Master Trainers and Headmasters/Principals or any appointed teacher can take on the role of Internal Mentors. External Mentors are officers from the Examinations Syndicate, State Education Department and District Education Departments.
 
What is meant by monitoring?
 
It is the process of ensuring PBS is conducted according to set guidelines and procedures.

Who conducts monitoring?
 
Internal monitoring is conducted by a teacher chosen by the School PBS Committee. External Monitors can be any officer from the Ministry of Education.

Can teachers from neighbouring schools cross monitor PBS activities?
 

Teachers are encouraged to do so for mutual benefit. Cross monitoring will enhance the reliability and credibility of PBS.
 
What of the trustworthiness of teachers in conducting PBS?
 

Teachers’ integrity should not be doubted. Credibility is ensured through mentoring, standardization monitoring, and detection.
 
Can a Headmaster/Principal or Senior Assistant be monitored?
 
If the Headmaster/Principal or Senior Assistant teaches any subject in any number of classes then they should also be monitored.
 
What happens to the PBS report for pupils who have transferred?
 
School authorities must notify the State Education Department about the transfer. The State Education Department will then transfer the pupil’s data so that it can be accessed by the new school.

Management of Evidence in PBS
 
Can the Showcase File be prepared at the end of the year?
 

No. The Showcase File must be prepared at the beginning of the school-year so that it can be used to confirm achievement in the Fail Perkembangan Murid.
 
How many files are needed to store evidence of pupils’ achievement?
 
Only one Fail Perkembangan Murid is needed to store all evidence for each pupil irregardless of the number of subjects.

Which evidence should be kept in the Fail Perkembangan Murid :
(i) best evidence for each band or
(ii) only best evidence in the highest band ?
 

Only the best evidence in the highest descriptor should be kept in the Fail Perkembangan Murid. Those in the previous (lower) band can be returned to the pupil.
 
How long must the evidence be kept?
 
The evidence can be returned to the owners after the Performance Standard has been recorded in the SPPS.
 
How is oral achievement verified?
 
Oral achievement recorded in the SPPBS can be verified by referring to the Ketua Panitia or by asking the pupil in question to perform the oral task again.

Source : Ministry of Education Policies

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